Sunday, April 15, 2018

Improvement Practices For Post Secondary Institutions; Dual Enrollment, Promotion, Retention, and Continuance.


Concept/Topic:

“Improvement Practices For Post Secondary Institutions; Dual Enrollment, Promotion, Retention, and Continuance”. 

The nature of this capstone project is to develop viable methods and means to further expand the concept of dual enrollment. My internal benefits are to impact my (LEA) local education agency and the perceptions towards advanced education in rural communities. My external goals are to widen the total initiative via outreach to college and universities outside of the State of Alabama, which would begin to lead into global pathways for this program’s impact on educational advancements and outcomes (i.e.) exposure, resources available, and application of skills and services. 
My recent conversation with a four-year college administrator (Chief of Staff) indicated to me that there is yet a greater need for this concept to be developed. Thus, it indicated that the impact is felt when there is no retention of students from high school to both 2-year and then 4-year colleges and universities. Our conversation also led into the impact on scholarships offered for students in various programs. In my personal experiences, I have seen students who participate in dual enrollment with an ACT Score  of 16-19 earn scholarships based on their performance in dual enrollment. Moreover, these students completed their associates’ degree and transitioned to a 4-year college in pursuit of their bachelors’ degree yet earning college scholarships. In short, ACT is only one indicator. I suggest that dual enrollment be considered to determine students’ success. The modest GPA requirement of 2.5 in the State of Alabama has opened many educational opportunities for students coming from rural and affluently challenging backgrounds. 
Later in my conversation with school leaders, I had a chance to discuss the issue with a local and current Superintendent of Education. We both shared a continued interest in dual enrollment programs, specifically for students in rural communities. The nature of this approach was to ensure more policy provisions for students entering dual enrollment and how the benefits need to align with their future career goals. Our discussion lead into developing programs in the early learning programs in P-12 educational settings which will impact future decisions made by students in the secondary settings. A implementation phase of this project (capstone) will focus on the early-elementary-middle grades readiness exposure. 
This will take a unique level of planning; however from this project and my direct interface with the concept I am certain we will produce favorable outcomes. Furthermore, I plan to revisit my initial presentation to the four-year university and to the two-year college in efforts of better managing a pipeline that will impact students from my school district and their entering post-secondary institutions. The outcomes are: increased enrollment, more retention of students in STEM programs, and mostly a more improved, diversified, and educated workforce. 
Resources:
          Blending high school and college can sharpen the focus of each: dual enrollment and early college experiences help students make smooth and successful transitions from high school to higher education. By Vargas, Joel; Hooker, Sarah; Gerwin, Carol. In: Phi Delta Kappan. Nov 2017, Vol 99 Issue 3, 13; Phi Delta Kappa, Inc. Language: English, Database: Expanded Academic ASAP
            Understanding College-Student Role: Perspectives of Participants in a High School/Community College Dual-Enrollment Program. By Lile, Joy R.; Ottusch, Timothy, M.; Jones, Terese; Richards, Leslie N.. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, February 2018 Vol. 42 Issue: 2 p95-111, 17p., Database: Supplemental Index
            More high school students could take college classes with dual enrollment. By: Mitchell, Alex. Grand Rapids Business Journal. 10/24/2011, Vol. 29 Issue 43, p17-17. 1/3p., Database; Regional Business News. 
            Dual Enrollment Programs and Courses for High School Students at Postsecondary Institutions: 2010-11. First Look. NCES 2013-002. By: Marken, Stephanie; Gray, Lucindda; Lewis, Laurie. National Center for Educational Statistics. 2013 58 pp. (ED540156).
Posted by: 
Melvin Alonza Lowe, III, EdD
(Walden University) 
M.S. - Higher Education w/ Adult Education



Saturday, March 3, 2018

Suggested Resources; Improving Adult Communication as 21st Century Learners.


           Suggested Resources; Improving Adult Communication as 21st Century Learners.
             In addressing the topic of Digital Citizenship in Adult Learning, I would like to share two resources that may be helpful in this professional exchange. To being this conversation I would like to share the following resource: Common Sense Education - https://www.commonsense.org/education/.  This is a user friendly application that helps address issues in communicating online from an education disposition (the student). Often students have very good information to share and contribute; however the delivery of their thought is often not in the best professional like; meaning the delivery is unacceptable. Short statements, grammar, usage, mechanics, etc and language tone tend to guild the wrong message.

            As I continue to look for readiness applications to support the learning of a modern day adult student, I continue in my quest to share meaningful applications which may be of benefit. Please allow me to share another resources; Digital Citizenship – Digital Assessment - https://digitalcitizenship.digitaljourney.nz/. Too often we think of just placing an adult learner in a traditional setting without any knowledge of their technical skills and ability to communicate in a post-secondary setting. The assessment data from a digital assessment on an adult learner gives the college or university a needs assessment of where to begin with the student. This information can be used to target growth with the leaner over a period of time to include graduation which supports the need for an effective growth and retention pattern.

            Now as we reflect on the matter of digital citizenship within adult education, I would like to move our thought processes to a specific position. From the development of these skills the learner will be able to better and more effectively communicate with instructors and peers via their online and face-to-face skills and resources. Moreover, so many of our students in higher education settings have the skills but lack the finesse of using these acquisitions in a more approved, acceptable, and applied manner. For example, online applications, chat sessions, blogs, and in general written communications to include e-mails are of great necessity in the development of a progressed adult learner. Most recently I spoke with a fellow employee per their tone and disposition in the work place. As I began to research the matter and resources to assist the situation I learned that these skill sets were not possessed by the individual. Therefore I began to see from an oversight perceptive that there is a dire need for these critical conversations and resources to be available in post-secondary programs; as a means of producing well educated and capable individuals.

The two resources that I have provided can be used in post-secondary settings as part of the orientation process for adult learners to include professional learning opportunities in the workplace. In the 21st century we must work as educators to building better support structures for current and returning students. The resources mentioned are just a few that can be of greater good if used to improve the learner and their professional outcomes.

Resources:

Bonk, C. J. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Posted by: 
Dr. Melvin Alonza Lowe, III, EdD 
Educational Director - 
Macon County Public Schools
lowema@maconk12.org 

SREB (Southern Regional Education Board)
National Presenter -
Summer Conference 2017

Wednesday, February 21, 2018

Preparing Adult Education Students For Success Using Online Learning Resources.


          
Preparing Adult Education Students For Success Using Online Learning Resources.
             In reviewing programs that can be used to support adult learners in professional learning environments, I have identified the following platforms which are currently used in post-secondary settings: blackboard -http://www.blackboard.com/index.html and

webct - https://www.elearninglearning.com/webct/.  Having worked with both of these software programs within my academic career, I strongly suggest their use and with non-traditional adult learners. In learning environments to include high school settings through college there needs to be a integration of resources so that students will be familiar with various means of applied instruction before entering college at best.

            These programs can be used via IVC, web-based, and blended methods of instructional design. Students returning to a learning environment may find these programs difficult, which is the reason I suggest building the students’ confidence as adult educators first. Next and with strong considerations there should be a protocol to allow these programs to be used towards the end of students’ first year of college studies. To make this a fair reality a program of work must be supported to benefit the students’ learning outcomes. Learning labs, tutorials and other forms of support should be part of the post-secondary education experiences for adult learning.

            I encourage students currently in college and those seeking to enroll to support online learning resources both pre-enrollment and post-graduation. The outcomes will build confidence in your applied skills and professional acquisitions when entering the workplace. Professional demands on college educated professional requires a strong level of preparation.

Resources:



Bonk, C. J. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Posted by:
Dr. Melvin Alonza Lowe, III, EdD
Educational Director -
Career & Technical Education / Workforce Development
Macon County Public Schools - Tuskegee, AL

Sunday, February 11, 2018

Adult Learning in Secondary and Post Secondary Settings; Best Practices - Retention of Rural and Adult Students.




Adult Learning in Secondary and Post Secondary Settings; 
Best Practices - Retention of Rural and Adult Students.

Focus Concept:
Developing a relationship with P-12 and Post-Secondary via dual enrollment programs; helping students transition from P-12 to Post Secondary. 

The development of a successful student begins with the educational programs from their Pre K - 3rd (early childhood learning), 4th - 6th (intermediate-elementary learning), 7th - 9th (junior high/middle grades), and 10th - 12th (high school) education. Too often we as educators and stakeholders do not balance the students' need verses what has always been done in the educating of students. Most of my education practice has been in rural and urban communities. In my practice I see so many similar circumstances regardless of the school system and post-secondary institution. What I see is a lack of proven effective practices in student engagement, reliable connections towards college and careers, and a stable feeder pattern from elementary to secondary to post-secondary. These are areas that I think with some adjustments will yield better practices towards increasing student enrollment and retention in post-secondary settings. Thus district accountability will be more reliable and measurable without continued failed practices. 

As I am focusing on adult learning in rural communities I make mention of dual enrollment. Dual enrollment has a great impact on retention at the post-secondary level. The contributions we are introducing are: students to college while they are yet in high school. Studies are being developed to measure the graduation rate of post-secondary students who entered college via dual enrollment. In the Macon County Public School System - Tuskegee, AL, we graduated 21 seniors on last year FY: 2017 who were in dual enrollment with Trenholm State Community College. Of those students 12 of them are currently enrolled at Trenholm yet building retention within the community college system. In a year prior dual enrollment students from our high schools graduated and are now attending a 4-year university having earned their associates degree from Trenholm. These outcomes can also hold true for adult learners returning to the educational setting (non-traditional adult students). From this we are offering best practices in adult learning in our existing programs and site location.

Moving forward we are working to build this relationship by offering Automotive Manufacturing and Health Science classes for adult learners seeking to further their professional outcomes. The goal; earn your certification and then continue working towards an associate or related degree. Fostering these outcomes is done by also offering GED classes and support services to those needed this provision via our Career and Technical Education Center. Additional authentic relationships are being established as a means of meeting the needs of adult learners in rural and depressed areas to include Veteran Affairs. We are developing best practices that will provide the workforce of America a qualified applicant pool. Adult education is taking on a new face. It is no longer a program or concept designed for those who did meet their program goals in twelve years. In transition it is a redesigned program for adults who seek to advance their current educational level in efforts of living their lives productively; seeking equitable employment opportunities. The Macon County Public School System and Trenholm State Community College are in partnership seeking to make these outcomes a reality for rural America. 

Resources:

Bonk,C.S. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lease, A.J., & Brown, T.A. (2009). Distance learning past, present, and future. International Journal of Instructional Media, 36 (4), 415-426.

Richardson, W. (2010). Blogs, wikis, podcasts, and other powerful web tools for classrooms (3rd.ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 

Sweet, M., & Pelton-Sweet, L.M. (2008). The social foundation of team-based learning; Students accountable to students. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008 (116), 29-40.


Post by: 
Dr. Melvin Alonza Lowe, III, EdD, EdS, M.Ed., M.S., B.S.
Educational Director - 
Career Technical and Workforce Development
lowema@maconk12.org 
lowemelvin724@gmail.com 
https://lowemelvin724.blogspot.com 



Sunday, September 17, 2017

Improving Adult Education via / Authentic Relationships in Rural Education Communities.

As I begin to navigate through the process of educating adult learners, I am doing so by reflecting on the six significant learning pillars associated with adult learning. The first is foundational knowledge. It is important when making the appropriate recommendations for adult learners that you realistically accept the students’ ability and functional levels. Furthermore as we place and make determinations towards their learning outcomes and program goals to include remediation services, you must have adequately addressed their basic needs (i.e.) affective domain. In my practice as both a 
P-12 Educator/Administrator and Post-Secondary Educator, I currently use ACT Key-Train as an initial program assessment of the student’s foundational skills. 

     It also helps me place and path the student’s instructional goals. I am seeking greater success with this practice as I continue to use it with my adult students. I currently us it as readiness for their GED, Ready To Work / Career Readiness Certification and mostly for their personal improvement needs. In short, it is a user friendly on-line/hybrid resource relative to the education skills needs of adult learners (i.e.) locating information, reading for information, and applied mathematics. 

The process of application should direct how long in my opinion a learner will remain in a particular program. Often adult learners need to self-assess as well as have formal assessments provided to them. Many of my adult learners have been out of an educational setting for more than 10 years. This is why the concept of application is needed. We must determine goals and set timelines towards achieving them. The skills that are yet developing will guide the rate in which the student is making progress in their learning. 

     The outcomes should support the learners’ goals and objectives set collaboratively. In my work I see that the more consistent the learner is, in terms of their learning outcomes the greater the impact is on their path towards success. Career success and some level of advanced education should be available to all individuals. Post secondary organizations are improving in their recruitment towards making this happen (i.e.) short certificate programs, certificate programs, and associate degree programs.

Integration of new skills based on learning acquisitions is vital in the learning process. In this 21st Century it is most important that we offer more applied replications of modern resources in our curriculum development. Learning is yet the same and in some ways it is different in reflection of 20 years past. What I am noticing as a consistent pattern is the matter in which students learn. All learning is based on the resources available and the process in which these resources are used in the learning environment. The process of integration must be well adapted if the concept is going to be successful. Specifically, a collaborative approach must be in place in order to meet the needs of the students and to have measurable outcomes. This will consequently assist the evaluation process of programs as a means of continuous improvement. 

As an educator and administrator I often make the statement “you can have the best curriculum and the worst staff per its implementation or you can have the best in human resources and the worst in materials and resources”.  Human Dimension is a valuable entity in all organizations but in the context of educational organizations it is a must. Learning is a process that requires not only the appropriate curricula, but it is also logical to match similar personnel towards meeting the needs of a successful implementation process. In nineteen years of working with both P-12 and Post-Secondary settings, I am beginning to see a greater need to plan as a collaborative group as well as to share faculty characteristics. The more recent initiative in my work setting is dual enrollment. With this I see best practices emerging towards meeting the needs of our students within this authentic relationship. 

     Some are to share resources within programs. We often share students so why not consider sharing personnel. When must continue to plan together as we are finding that much of our curriculum is the same. We also have noticed favorable outcomes and a greater retention within our shared student populations. For example, dual enrollment in the Macon County Public School System and with Trenholm State Community College has increased from 15 – 111 in a three year relationship. As of FY: 2016/2017 there are twenty-one seniors who graduated high school with dual enrollment credit towards their associates degree. The human dimension concept should be favored to enable these outcomes. Success must be shared equally. We are using this learning pillar of organizational development to aide our students. Offering a humanistic approach will ultimately provide greater success towards our largest commodity; our students. 

You can not have success in any organization or function without caring. I recently developed a new initiative in my work setting “CTE STEM Student Send OFF”.  This was developed out of caring for the students that I work with. The process is simple, I often think of my successes and how I achieved them. This reflection then humbles me to impress on others to consider caring unconditionally of themselves towards the improvement of someone else. 

     In adult learning, there is a need to allow your adult students an opportunity to see you from different lenses. Often those lenses are you’re caring in the simplest manner. I have provided simplicity in my caring; offering a adult student a meal that we share together, offering a student a ride after class, attending a or community event with a student, etc . These are modest, but I have witnessed a more improved learning relationship between students and the instructional staff having demonstrated a genuine interest per their personal-selves. Caring is free and it works. 

Lastly, in the teaching of any individuals we often have to decide what is best. Learning how to learn is one of the concepts that are every changing. Methods in teaching often need to change. However things do not change because we fail to reflect on what has worked and what has not worked and to accept it. I see the practice of best teaching practices at a stand-still in some areas of service and instruction. 

     More directly, we fail to focus on how individuals learn and what is needed to learn and how to learn. In an effort to improve adult learning and learning in general we must reflect on how we as educators learned and then reflect on what could have been implemented differently. We must also focus on our new the generation of learners individually and how we must better direct their’ learning to learn processes. Intuitiveness is the nature having a solid inclination of what is considered insightful. Learning is indeed a science and must be considered as such. Methodology will continue to steady how we define learning. However, a more intimate view can provide a reflection per past and future best practices. A best wish will be to gain more personal development and to correlate those experiences with current practice. The change will come with a greater understanding of these six kinds of significant learning.  

Resources:
Fink, L. D. (2013). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses (Rev.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barr, R. B., & Tagg, J. (1995). From teaching to learning—A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, 27(6), 1–18.

Post by: 
Dr. Melvin Alonza Lowe, III, EdD, EdS, M.S., M.Ed., B.S.
Educational Director - 
Macon County Public School System
     lowemelvin724@gmail.com
     lowema@maconk12.org 

Sunday, June 25, 2017

Strategies To Improve Higher Education w/ a focus on curriculum, globalization, and funding.


 Strategies To Improve Higher Education w/ a focus on curriculum, globalization, and funding.

In an effort to increase students’ interest in post-secondary education there must be encouragement supported by a quality learning experience and there must be programs of study that are attractive to both the student’s interest and industry needs. An active effort should be taken within the following manner to ensure that ongoing best practices are developed and implemented towards these goals and objectives. To support an improved learning environment within post-secondary settings, colleges and universities should consider: the curriculum structure, globalization of services and support initiatives, and financial assistance towards meeting the advanced educational needs of the learner.
Modern approaches to curriculum leadership include online learning as well as web-based platforms. More recently we are moving away from blended instructional frames in come college settings. However the increased uses of educational technology manifest blended instructional methods within certain programs, the more advanced learning environments. We are yet moving more towards continued site-based instruction and more web-based instruction. In colleges and universities where there is an increased enrollment you will find more support of online learning environments which are an attractive quality for adult learners who are also employed.
There are many more advancements that are coupled with curricula advancements such as content, grading criteria, short-term semesters, and degrees offered. Nevertheless, the greater qualities of the learning experience for the student are those that meet their life-long goals, personal needs, and career objectives. These are the areas that post-secondary administrators should consider when making adjustment for the improve efforts per their curriculum design. Curriculum should be a daily task in post secondary setting. Thus, knowledge of program outcomes must be well vested in the planning of new program designs and curricula structures.
As advanced efforts are taken towards increasing the affects of student learning, we should also focus on the globalization of our organizations. The methods used within the instructional practices should include the focus on diversification of faculty, facilities, to include recruitment efforts. Students must see themselves in the organization where they are to study successfully and where they are expected to advance socially. Retention in programs is greatly impacted by the manner in which students see themselves on college campuses. In the organization of programs, faculty, and programs there should be equity in the level of instructional programs with a fair distribution of cultural respects. There must be policy statements that support and protect these conditions and provisions for students enrolled as well as for those who may consider enrollment into a particular organization. These efforts will support the acceptance of your organizations’ graduates as their presence in the local community will be well respected and receive
Lastly, the financial needs of adult learners are a changing dynamic that should be addressed with more attention. In some college and universities there are many resources available to the student and their unique learning needs. For example, dining services, housing, and child care continue to be major factors in the enrollment, retention and graduation of students in both 2-year and 4-year college systems. More adults are working directly from high school and need the financial assist that is provided at larger colleges and schools. In rural populations there is also a need if not a greater need for similar services and career opportunities. To off set the experiences of college students in a new environment there should be more opportunities for employment available to them. If at all possible the campus location where they are seeking an advanced education would be a great start of both educational grown and development and employment. To future assist the financial needs of the adult learner, the organizations should consider offering required financial literacy programs as a curriculum and graduation requirement. Many times students complete college with poor fiscal management habits which leads them to failed careers. Colleges must improve in the exit procedures for students in post-secondary environments. The organizational culture, academic posture, and fiscal posture of the student towards the end of their learning experience will determine if the process was successful. These practices must be a revisit on a regular cycle if greater outcomes are to flourish in post-secondary learning experiences.

References:

Guri-Rosenblit, S., Sebkova, H., & Teichler, U. (2007). Massification and diversity of higher                           education systems: Interplay of complex dimensions. Higher Education Policy, 20(4), 373-389.
                  Retrieved from Walden Library using the SAGE Journals Online database.


Salmi, J., & Bassett, R. M. (2009). Rankings 09: Measures matter. World University Rankings 2009. Retrieved from http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=408566

Post by:
Melvin Alonza Lowe, III, EdD
Educational Director
Career Technical/Workforce Development
Macon County Public Schools
(Walden University M.S. Higher Education w/ Adult Learning)

Globalization and Post Secondary Education


Globalization and Post Secondary Education
Many of the colleges and universities that I have reviewed in the United States are within the southern states. They are faced with similar issues regarding staffing per programs and outcomes. In my review of two-year community colleges in Montgomery and Opelika Alabama I am noticing that in the areas of automotive manufacturing and information technology there is yet a disconnect with regards to  instructors and students per naturalized Americans. Many of the staffers for these programs are none-naturalized Americans. This is due to a large percentage of globalizations and pre-service programs (high-school) curriculums that do not prepare students for careers in these STEM areas. Equally, there is a shortage of instructors for programs in these areas of instruction due to lack of employment opportunities, housing, and retirement options.

Recently at two of the community colleges that I have researched (Trenholm State Community College and Southern Union State Community College), there is a shared instructional population. Many of the same staffers teach at the same colleges as there is a shortage of qualified personnel in the areas mentioned. To be exact, I am in a hiring freeze for an Industrial Manufacturing program in that there have been no qualifying applicants for the position. Secondly, the communication barriers are also a concern when the instructor’s dialect is so strong and the American students are unable to gather a good understanding of the curricula content due to this disadvantage. These are a few of the concerns that globalization has caused post-secondary education in terms of instructional staffing.

In staffing post-secondary organizations there are often issues per salary, rank, and tenure. Additionally these are all valid issues that I have interfaced in my research per globalization and how effective the process is in the United States in particular to the southern states. Many of the staff at the two post-secondary schools that I have reviewed are the same in that they have not earned tenure at either school due to their mobilization to secure higher pay within the post-secondary system. Most recently the post-secondary board of trustee has been re-developed meaning that we have separate governance with P-12 and Post-Secondary. Again, many of the previous issues remain but they are addressed by a different governing board of directors/trustees. Additional areas of concerns are presented in the organizational structure of individual colleges within a unified system. In one setting there is a President and various department heads. In the other organization there are is President, Vice President, Deans, and Directors. This is a concern in terms of staffing because they are both organizations that have similar programs and student populations yet their leadership structure is vastly different to include pay for their employees. In one setting there has been litigation regarding positions and appointments and not enough diversity given to the concept of globalization. In a fair sense you may decrease potential enrollment based on this mere fact in your organization. The development of a globalizing organization is an ongoing process. There must be input from the community and employees to include hiring procedures that insure that there is equity within the organization.  

I have experienced many new strategies offered by post-secondary organizations in terms of recruitment and retention. Some of them I think have worked and some have not. The ones that I find working the most are those that impact the quality of instruction. Too often the programs of study are not given the merit they are due. In many cases the same courses are offered at two-Year College are the same courses are offered at four-year colleges. I am speaking of the academic courses in general (Math, Science, English, and Social Sciences). With this in mind, high school students both American and none-American should be given the same opportunity to pursue these educational experiences and tuition benefits. Many of the students that I work with in Alabama are rural students who can not afford four-year College directly from high school. With this, there needs to be more domestic globalization to encourage and share the programs of study with local students yet exposing local none-American cultures the same experience. There should be more focus on STEM and Foreign Language programs in community colleges with a connection to four-year colleges after graduation. There are so many benefits that can manifest at the two-year college system but advertising that the institution welcomes diversity should be a factor to ensure that the programs are equally staffed and populated with a mixed-culture of students.
In closing, I have seen programmatic changes take place by offering simply organizational changes in staffing and outward communications. In my school system we are partnered with two community colleges with dual enrollment programs. Both school present different programs to our students based on interest and need. With a greater appreciation given towards the cultural differences of both high schools, we are seeing more student entering community college from high school as well as an increase in returning students who have graduated 5-8 years ago. The impact has been credited to the programs offered and the diversity in the staff who work with the students. As colleges and universities continue to expand their programs and increase student enrollment, I feel that many forward approaches towards globalization should be taken into consideration in efforts of providing a more advanced, educated thus diversified workforce.

References:

Cooper, J., & Mitsunaga, R. (2010). Faculty perspectives on international education: The nested realities of faculty collaborations. New Directions for Higher Education, (150), 69-81.

Wildavsky, B. (2009, September/October). How America's mania for college rankings went global. Washington Monthly, 41(9/10), 48-53.


Posted by:
Melvin Alonza Lowe, III, EdD
Educational Director
Career Technical/Workforce Development
Macon County Public Schools
(Walden University M.S. Higher Education w/ Adult Learning)